Testicular cancer symptoms and treatment

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Here you will find detailed information about testicular cancer symptoms and treatment. In fact, a discussion on the diagnosis of this cancer is also provided.

An Overview of testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, which are the male reproductive glands responsible for producing sperm and hormones such as testosterone. Testicular cancer usually begins in the cells that make up the testicles, called germ cells. Germ cell tumors are the most common type of testicular cancer, accounting for over 90% of cases.

Testicular cancer is relatively rare, accounting for about 1% of all cancers in men, but it is the most common cancer in young men between the ages of 15 and 35. The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown, but there are several risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing it, including a family history of testicular cancer, personal history of testicular cancer in the past, undescended testicle (cryptorchidism), and certain genetic conditions.

Testicular cancer is highly treatable, especially when detected early. It typically presents as a painless lump or swelling in the testicle, and other symptoms may include pain, discomfort, changes in testicle size or shape, and breast growth or tenderness. Diagnosis involves a physical examination, imaging tests, blood tests, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, surveillance, or participation in clinical trials, depending on the type, stage, and extent of cancer.


It’s important for men to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of testicular cancer, and to seek medical attention promptly if any abnormalities are noticed. Regular testicular self-examination, performed monthly, can also be helpful in detecting any changes or lumps in the testicles early. Consulting with a healthcare provider who specializes in treating testicular cancer can provide proper evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment options.

Symptoms of testicular cancer

Testicular cancer may not always cause noticeable symptoms in its early stages, and it is often detected during routine self-examination or by a healthcare provider during a physical exam. However, some common symptoms of testicular cancer may include:

Lump or swelling: The most common symptom of testicular cancer is a painless lump or swelling in one or both testicles. The lump may feel hard, small, or pea-sized and may be located on the front or side of the testicle. The lump may or may not be attached to the testicle and may grow over time.

Pain or discomfort: Testicular cancer may cause pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum. The pain may be dull, aching, or sharp, and may be persistent or intermittent. Pain or discomfort may also be felt in the lower abdomen or groin area.

Changes in size or shape: Testicular cancer may cause changes in the size, shape, or consistency of the testicle. The affected testicle may become larger or smaller, or it may feel harder or softer than normal. It may also become lumpy or irregular in shape.

Heaviness or swelling: Some men with testicular cancer may experience a sense of heaviness or swell in the scrotum or testicle, which may be accompanied by a feeling of fullness or pressure.

Breast tenderness or enlargement: In rare cases, testicular cancer may cause hormonal changes that can result in breast tenderness or enlargement (gynecomastia), as the tumor may produce certain hormones that affect the hormonal balance in the body.

It’s important to note that not all lumps or changes in the testicles are indicative of testicular cancer, as there are many benign conditions that can cause similar symptoms. However, if you notice any persistent changes or abnormalities in your testicles, it’s important to consult a healthcare provider for further evaluation and diagnosis. Early detection and treatment of testicular cancer can greatly increase the chances of successful treatment and recovery.


Diagnosis of testicular cancer typically involves several steps to determine the presence, type, stage, and extent of cancer. Here are the common methods used in the diagnosis of testicular cancer:

Physical examination: A healthcare provider will perform a thorough physical examination of the testicles, scrotum, and groin area to check for any lumps, swelling, or abnormalities. They may also examine the abdomen and other areas for signs of cancer spread.

Imaging tests: Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, are commonly used to create images of the testicles and scrotum, which can help identify any abnormal masses or lumps. Ultrasound can also help determine the characteristics of the mass, such as its size, shape, and location, which can provide important information for diagnosis.

Blood tests: Blood tests may be conducted to check for tumor markers, which are substances produced by some testicular cancers that can be detected in the blood. The most common tumor markers for testicular cancer are alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Elevated levels of these markers may suggest the presence of testicular cancer and can help determine the type and stage of cancer.


Biopsy: If a suspicious lump or mass is found, a biopsy may be performed to confirm the presence of cancer cells. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the testicle for examination under a microscope by a pathologist. A biopsy is typically done through surgery, either by removing the entire testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) or by removing a part of the mass (fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy).

Imaging for staging: If testicular cancer is confirmed, further imaging tests may be done to determine the stage and extent of cancer. These may include a CT scan, MRI, or chest X-ray, which can help identify if cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, other organs, or distant sites in the body.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the healthcare provider will determine the type, stage, and extent of testicular cancer, which will help guide the treatment plan. It’s important to consult with a healthcare provider who specializes in treating testicular cancer to ensure accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


The treatment of testicular cancer depends on several factors, including the type, stage, and extent of cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health and preferences. The main treatment options for testicular cancer include:

Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for testicular cancer. The most common surgical procedure is radical inguinal orchiectomy, which involves removing the affected testicle through an incision in the groin. In some cases, a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) may also be performed to remove lymph nodes in the abdomen.

Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays, such as X-rays or protons, to kill cancer cells. It may be used as a primary treatment for certain types of testicular cancer, or as adjuvant therapy after surgery to eliminate any remaining cancer cells. Radiation therapy is typically targeted to specific areas where cancer cells may be present, such as the lymph nodes.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. It may be used before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) to shrink tumors, after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy) to kill remaining cancer cells, or as the primary treatment for advanced or metastatic testicular cancer. Chemotherapy drugs for testicular cancer may include cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin, among others. Chemotherapy is often given in cycles, with rest periods in between to allow the body to recover.

Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs to specifically target cancer cells, usually by blocking specific proteins or pathways that are involved in cancer growth. Targeted therapy may be used in certain cases of testicular cancer, particularly for advanced or refractory cases.

Surveillance: In some cases, particularly for very early-stage testicular cancer, a healthcare provider may recommend surveillance, which involves closely monitoring cancer with regular imaging tests, blood tests, and physical exams, without immediate active treatment. Treatment may be initiated if there are signs of cancer progression.

Clinical trials: Clinical trials may be available for testicular cancer patients, which involve testing new treatments or treatment combinations to evaluate their safety and effectiveness. Participation in a clinical trial may be considered part of the treatment plan for some patients.

The choice of treatment approach and the sequence of treatments will depend on the specific characteristics of testicular cancer, as well as the patient’s overall health and preferences. It’s important to work closely with a healthcare provider who specializes in treating testicular cancer to develop an individualized treatment plan that best fits the patient’s needs. Regular follow-up and monitoring are also important to detect any potential recurrence or complications.

Risk factors

There are several known risk factors that may increase a man’s likelihood of developing testicular cancer. These risk factors include:

Age: Testicular cancer is most commonly diagnosed in young and middle-aged men, with the highest incidence occurring between the ages of 15 and 40. However, it can occur at any age.

Cryptorchidism: Cryptorchidism, or undescended testicle, is a condition in which one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have had cryptorchidism are at an increased risk of developing testicular cancer, particularly if the condition was not corrected through surgery.

Family history: Having a family history of testicular cancer may increase a man’s risk of developing the disease. If a father or brother has had testicular cancer, the risk may be higher.

Personal history of testicular cancer: Men who have previously had testicular cancer are at an increased risk of developing cancer in the other testicle, although this risk is still relatively low.

Race and ethnicity: Testicular cancer is more common in white men compared to men of other races and ethnicities.

Testicular abnormalities: Certain testicular conditions, such as testicular microlithiasis (presence of small calcifications in the testicle) and intratubular germ cell neoplasia (abnormal cells in the testicular tubules), may increase the risk of developing testicular cancer.

HIV infection: Men with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) may have an increased risk of testicular cancer, although this risk is still relatively low.

Environmental exposure: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as high levels of estrogen or estrogen-like chemicals, may increase the risk of testicular cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the impact of environmental factors on testicular cancer risk.

It’s important to note that having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean that a man will develop testicular cancer, and some men without any known risk factors may still develop the disease. Regular self-examination of the testicles, routine physical exams, and discussing any concerns or risk factors with a healthcare provider can help with the early detection and management of testicular cancer.

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